[Solved] Keras: “RuntimeError: Failed to import pydot.” after installing graphviz and pydot

I’m using Anaconda Python 2.7 on windows 10

I was planning on doing Keras visualization so (whilst spyder was open) I opened the Anaconda command prompt and pip installed graphviz and pydot. Now when I try run the following:

from keras.models import Sequential

or any sort of “from keras.” , I get the error:

ImportError: cannot import name gof

I have uninstalled and reinstalled Keras, Graphviz and pydot. i am using the development version of theano. I cannot find a fix.


If I uninstall graphviz and pydot, keras works again


After uninstalling anaconda and reinstalling it including theano, keras, graphviz and pydot I now get the following error:

from keras.utils.visualize_util import plot

Using Theano backend.
Using gpu device 0: GeForce GTX 970M (CNMeM is disabled, cuDNN not available)
Traceback (most recent call last):

  File "<ipython-input-1-65016ddab3cd>", line 1, in <module>
  from keras.utils.visualize_util import plot

  File "C:Anaconda2libsite-packageskerasutilsvisualize_util.py", line  8, in <module>
  raise RuntimeError('Failed to import pydot. You must install pydot'

RuntimeError: Failed to import pydot. You must install pydot and graphviz  for `pydotprint` to work.

I used pip install graphviz and pip install git+https://github.com/nlhepler/pydot.git

Enquirer: ishido


Solution #1:

The error message is a bit misleading, as you can see here. The problem is that graphviz is not installed.

But you mention that graphviz was installed using pip. This is also misleading, since that graphviz package is just a python wrapper, and the graphviz binaries have to be installed separately for the python wrapper to work.

Respondent: ishido

Solution #2:

If you are using an Anaconda environment, you’d better install pydotplus and graphviz via conda install.

conda install graphviz
conda install pydotplus

You’d better update your Keras to the newest version (2.0.9+), it can automatically check and choose which one of pydotplus,pydot-ng,pydot to be used. pydot-ng has been unmaintained for a long time, and it only supports py3.4- and py2.7.

Respondent: Dr. Snoopy

Solution #3:

What I did is followed.

import keras
import pydotplus
from keras.utils.vis_utils import model_to_dot
keras.utils.vis_utils.pydot = pydot

plot_model(your_model_name, to_file='model.png')

That’s worked for me.
On mac Anaconda python=3.6.8

Respondent: Tom

Solution #4:

I had the same problem. I am using Anaconda python on Ubuntu. but it seams that Keras uses system’s python not the Anaconda python. Initially, I installed pydot and graphviz using conda. When I installed pydot and graphviz in system’s python(using /usr/bin/pip install pydot) it worked fine.

Respondent: Yupei

Solution #5:

Keras 2.0.6 looks for pydot-ng (better maintained) and then if it’s not found, falls back on pydot. I resolved this issue by installing pydot-ng from source.

Respondent: alhanaei

Solution #6:

Install graphviz by brew in osx brew install graphviz, for ubuntu use apt-get install graphviz, do not need to install graphviz by pip.

Respondent: jok

Solution #7:

I had similar problem with my Keras (without anaconda). I have solved my problem using this way

sudo pip install pydot
sudo pip install graphviz
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:gviz-adm/graphviz-dev
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install graphviz-dev
Respondent: yogesh

Solution #8:

1)Conda install graphviz
2)pip install graphviz
3)pip install pydot

import os
os.environ["PATH"] += os.pathsep + AppData\Local\Continuum\anaconda3\envs\tensorflow\Library\bin\graphviz'

Respondent: Eka

Solution #9:

For Anaconda on Mac:

To install this package with conda run:

conda install -c anaconda graphviz

Respondent: amit pandey

Solution #10:

  1. Install graphviz to the system. Download the package from here, or on Mac:

    brew install graphviz
  2. Install python pydot-ng and graphviz wrapper.

    pip install pydot-ng graphviz
    conda install -c anaconda pydot-ng #Anaconda user
  3. Use pydot-ng in your code

    import pydot_ng as pydot
  4. If Keras visualization utils still uses pydot, try to change import pydot to import pydot_ng as pydot in visualize_util.py

Respondent: saneryee

Solution #11:

The below works inside a jupyter notebook runing in a jupyter/tensorflow-notebook docker container.

!conda install -y graphviz pydotplus

import pydotplus
import keras.utils
keras.utils.vis_utils.pydot = pydotplus
keras.utils.plot_model(your_model_name, to_file='model.png', show_shapes=True)

You need to tell keras to use pydotplus

Respondent: Shih-Wen Su

Solution #12:

it is nothing related to pydot or graphviz if you have installed via pip.

You should go download graphviz brinary and install.

Don’t forget adding the bin folder into your PATH: C:/Program Files (x86)/Graphviz2.38/bin/

And after that to close and reopen your console.

Respondent: BenCaldwell

The answers/resolutions are collected from stackoverflow, are licensed under cc by-sa 2.5 , cc by-sa 3.0 and cc by-sa 4.0 .

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