[Solved] Node.js document is not defined

Why node.js does not recognize document.GetElementById?
It says ‘ReferenceError: document is not defined’.
What can I do?

ReferenceError: document is not defined
at Object.<anonymous> (C:UsersDesktopmain.js:9:18)
at Module._compile (module.js:460:26)
at Object.Module._extensions..js (module.js:478:10)
at Module.load (module.js:355:32)
at Function.Module._load (module.js:310:12)
at Function.Module.runMain (module.js:501:10)
at startup (node.js:129:16)
at node.js:814:3
Enquirer: Ela


Solution #1:

document relates to the DOM (Document Object Model) in a web browser.

Node.js, however, is not browser Javascript. It is a server, much like PHP or Perl, and as such, you can’t access the browser’s DOM or do anything specific to browser-based Javascript.

The closest you could get is using something like to include Node.js modules in your client-side code.

Respondent: brandonscript

Solution #2:

You could use JSDom to add Dom support to Node. To make a variable global you can use either

GLOBAL.document = new JSDOM(html).window.document;


global.document = new JSDOM(html).window.document;

where html is your website as a string.

To use JSDom include it in your project with:

const jsdom = require("jsdom");
const { JSDOM } = jsdom;

or in plain js with:

var jsdom = require("jsdom");
var JSDOM = jsdom.JSDOM;

I hope this is answering your question.

Respondent: KOsimo

Solution #3:

To understand the answer, it’s necessary to know the relationship of: Javascript Engine, Browser and Node.js.

Javascript Engine: is Javascript compiler which turns JS into machine code. For example, V8, is a great one. Technically V8 is developed by C++ (you can regard it as a C++ program).

V8 implements ECMAScript, which a standard of Javascript language defining the features and functionalities of JS.

But DOM operation is not defined by ECMAScript. So V8 doesn’t support it.

Browser: And developers can use document for DOM operation in browser, because DOM operation is provided by browser, for example: Chrome.

Chrome is also developed by C++ and V8(as mentioned abvoe, which is developed by C++ as well) is embedded into Chrome to interpret Javascript. So Chrome expends or adds features to Javascript by binding JS command and C++ implementation together.

Nodejs: different from the Chrome, it is a server side program. But the same thing is that Nodejs is developed by C++ and V8 is embedded into Nodejs to handle js. Nodejs expands features of Javascript in the similar way with Chrome. But since server side doesn’t need to handle DOM, so you can not access such functions inside Nodejs.

Respondent: Chris Bao

Solution #4:

OK, shorter answer is you wanna access document Object which is only available in the window and front end side, don’t forget that document === window.document which you don’t have access in the server and node side…

So never try something like this on your node side for example getting root element by ID which will throw the error, instead try to access it from FrontEnd:


will throw an Error:

ReferenceError: document is not defined
at Object.<anonymous> (C:UsersDesktopapp.js:12:50)
at Module._compile (my.js:490:34)
at Object.Module._extensions..js (my.js:518:10)
at Module.load (my.js:555:42)
at Function.Module._load (my.js:610:12)
at Function.Module.runMain (my.js:701:10)
at startup (node.js:899:16)
at node.js:901:3

The short answer is don’t use document and window object in node.js as they are not available in node.js

Using Domino could help in some cases for accessing the dom…

As the name might suggest, domino’s goal is to provide a DOM in Node.

In contrast to the original dom.js project, domino was not designed to
run untrusted code. Hence it doesn’t have to hide its internals behind
a proxy facade which makes the code not only simpler, but also more

Domino currently doesn’t use any harmony features like proxies or
WeakMaps and therefore also runs in older Node versions.

For more info, visit here

Respondent: Alireza

Solution #5:

  • npm install npm -g
  • after that “npm install -g typescript

this command helped me for this problem

Respondent: Radhika

The answers/resolutions are collected from stackoverflow, are licensed under cc by-sa 2.5 , cc by-sa 3.0 and cc by-sa 4.0 .

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