Question

[Solved] How to programmatically pair a bluetooth device on Android

For my application I’m trying to programmatically pair a bluetooth device. I’m able to show the pairing dialog for the device I want to pair and I can enter a pincode. When I press “Pair” the dialog is removed and nothing happens.

I only need to support devices with Android 2.0 and newer.

Currently I am using the following code to start the pairing progress:


public void pairDevice(BluetoothDevice device) {
        String ACTION_PAIRING_REQUEST = "android.bluetooth.device.action.PAIRING_REQUEST";
        Intent intent = new Intent(ACTION_PAIRING_REQUEST);
        String EXTRA_DEVICE = "android.bluetooth.device.extra.DEVICE";
        intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DEVICE, device);
        String EXTRA_PAIRING_VARIANT = "android.bluetooth.device.extra.PAIRING_VARIANT";
        int PAIRING_VARIANT_PIN = 0;
        intent.putExtra(EXTRA_PAIRING_VARIANT, PAIRING_VARIANT_PIN);
        intent.setFlags(Intent.FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK);
        context.startActivity(intent);
    }

Before starting a pairing request I stop scanning for new devices.

My application has the following bluetooth permissions:

  • android.permission.BLUETOOTH_ADMIN
  • android.permission.BLUETOOTH
Enquirer: FireFly

||

Solution #1:

I managed to auto request a pairing procedure with keyboard featured devices through an app working as a service checking the presence of a specific kind of device and a modified version of the Settings app.

I have to say that I was working on a custom device running Android 4.0.3 without external controls (no back/Home/confirm buttons): pairing a controller on boot complete without any interaction until PIN request was mandatory.

First I created a service starting an activity on boot (with android.intent.action.BOOT_COMPLETED and android.permission.RECEIVE_BOOT_COMPLETED) that checks periodically the presence of a 1344 class device (a keyboard, the only way to input data on request) on the onReceive callback:

public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) 
...
    BluetoothDevice dev = intent.getParcelableExtra(BluetoothDevice.EXTRA_DEVICE);
...
if(dev.getBluetoothClass().getDeviceClass() == 1344){...}

Once filtered I choose the first keyboard available and then I pass the BT address to the Settings app:

Intent btSettingsIntent = new Intent(Settings.ACTION_BLUETOOTH_SETTINGS);
btSettingsIntent.putExtra("btcontroller", dev.getAddress());
startActivityForResult(btSettingsIntent, 1);

The tricky part was looking for the best position to call the pairing process. Using only the

intent.putExtra(BluetoothDevice.EXTRA_PAIRING_VARIANT, PAIRING_VARIANT_PIN);

led me to a paring dialog that once closed left me with the device paired, but unusable.

Digging into the classes of com.Android.settings.Bluetooth I found my way through the

createDevicePreference(CachedBluetoothDevice cachedDevice) 

in the DeviceListPreferenceFragment.

From there I did compare my previously selected BT address with those available coming up and once successfully matched I call

cachedDevice.startPairing();

I know, it’s tricky and requires access to the Android source code, but in a custom environment it works.

I hope this could be helpful.

Respondent: DvD

Solution #2:

It’s my answer:

in onCreate() write this:

    registerReceiver(incomingPairRequestReceiver, new IntentFilter(BluetoothDevice.ACTION_PAIRING_REQUEST));

then create variable

private final BroadcastReceiver incomingPairRequestReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {
    @Override
    public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
        String action = intent.getAction();
        if (BluetoothDevice.ACTION_PAIRING_REQUEST.equals(action)) {
            BluetoothDevice dev = intent.getParcelableExtra(BluetoothDevice.EXTRA_DEVICE);
            //pair from device: dev.getName()
            if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.KITKAT) {
                dev.setPairingConfirmation(true);
                //successfull pairing
            } else {
                //impossible to automatically perform pairing,
                //your Android version is below KITKAT
            }
        }
    }
};
Respondent: klapeyron

Solution #3:

Unfortunately, I think the best that you are going to get is opening up Settings/Wireless & networks/Bluetooth Settings for the user like so:

    Intent intent = new Intent(Settings.ACTION_BLUETOOTH_SETTINGS);
    startActivityForResult(intent, REQUEST_PAIR_DEVICE);
Respondent: sky-dev

Solution #4:

Using reflection you can call the method createBond from the BluetoothDevice class.

See this post: How to unpair or delete paired bluetooth device programmatically on android?

There is also a solution for unpair.

Respondent: Derzu

Solution #5:

Reflection is DODGY, different manufacturers can change these underlying methods as they wish! I have tested many different apps on our 10 devices here and these reflection method only works fully on roughly 75% of devices. If you want an app that works for everyone be very careful when using reflection – try some cloud testing to test your app on 100+ devices and check the failure rate.

In this case reflection is not needed at all since API 19 (KitKat 4.4)

BluetoothDevice has new method CreateBond.

 private void pairDevice(BluetoothDevice device) {

            device.createBond();
    }

developer.android.com/reference/android/bluetooth/BluetoothDevice.html

Respondent: aiden_fry

Solution #6:

May be you need to startActivityForResult instead of only startActivity?

Other option is to look into the BluetoothChat application sample and start an RFComm connection socket, as soon as you start the socket a pairing request will automatically appear without needing to send a separate intent for pairing. This way you won’t need to handle pairing.

http://developer.android.com/resources/samples/BluetoothChat/index.html

Respondent: Rahul Choudhary

Solution #7:

I am using this class to do connection between my client smartphone and the server device:

private class ConnectThread extends Thread
{
    private final BluetoothSocket mmSocket;

    private final UUID WELL_KNOWN_UUID = UUID.fromString("00001101-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb");

    public ConnectThread(BluetoothDevice device)
    {
        // Use a temporary object that is later assigned to mmSocket,because
        // mmSocket is final
        BluetoothSocket tmp = null;

        // Get a BluetoothSocket to connect with the given BluetoothDevice
        try
        {
            tmp = device.createRfcommSocketToServiceRecord(WELL_KNOWN_UUID);
            //This is the trick
            Method m = device.getClass().getMethod("createRfcommSocket", new Class[] { int.class });
            tmp = (BluetoothSocket) m.invoke(device, 1);
        } catch (Exception e)
        {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }

        mmSocket = tmp;
    }

    public void run()
    {
        DebugLog.i(TAG, "Trying to connect...");
        // Cancel discovery because it will slow down the connection
        mBluetoothAdapter.cancelDiscovery();

        try
        {
            // Connect the device through the socket. This will block
            // until it succeeds or throws an exception
            mmSocket.connect();
            DebugLog.i(TAG, "Connection stablished");
        } catch (IOException connectException)
        {
            // Unable to connect; close the socket and get out
            DebugLog.e(TAG, "Fail to connect!", connectException);
            try
            {
                mmSocket.close();
            } catch (IOException closeException)
            {
                DebugLog.e(TAG, "Fail to close connection", closeException);
            }
            return;
        }
    }

    /** Will cancel an in-progress connection, and close the socket */
    public void cancel()
    {
        try
        {
            mmSocket.close();
        } catch (IOException e)
        {
        }
    }
}

First, get the BluetoothDevice object that you want to connect (listing paired devices or discoverying devices). Then do:

ConnectThread ct = new ConnectThread(device);
ct.start();

Because connect() is a blocking call, this connection procedure should always be performed in a thread separate from the main activity thread. See Android Developers for more detailed info.

Respondent: DragonT

Solution #8:

I’ve found that using different values for PAIRING_VARIANT_PIN result in different pairing UI behaviours.

See this page:
http://code.google.com/p/backport-android-bluetooth/source/browse/trunk/backport-android-bluetooth201/src/backport/android/bluetooth/BluetoothDevice.java?spec=svn67&r=67

I suspect the problem you’re having is that both devices are Bluetooth 2.1, in which case a pairing request should result in a 6 digit passkey being displayed on both devices.

The best result I was able to achieve was using PAIRING_VARIANT_PIN = 0. When prompted by my application, I entered pin 1234 and a 6 digit passkey appeared on my target device. The pairing UI finished and that was that.

Either you need to find out how to initiate a Bluetooth 2.1 pairing request, using some other pairing variant or pairing variant pin. Or, you’re not catching the result of the activity that’s running properly.

Given the amount of time I’ve been trying to do this, I’ve decided that my end users will just have to pair using the android settings before using my application.

Respondent: user1007074

Solution #9:

This is how I get it:

Bluetooth device = mBtAdapter.getRemoteDevice(address);
//address:11:23:FF:cc:22 
Method m = device.getClass()        
 .getMethod("createBond", (Class[]) null);
         m.invoke(device, (Object[]) null); // send pairing dialog request

After pairing//
       connectDevice(address);
Respondent: Chichi Dinoy

Solution #10:

in addition to my comment, by the way, even if these ACTION types did exist, that’s not how you use them. here’s an example:

Intent intent = new Intent(BluetoothDevice.ACTION_PAIRING_REQUEST);
intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DEVICE, device);
int PAIRING_VARIANT_PIN = 272;
intent.putExtra(BluetoothDevice.EXTRA_PAIRING_VARIANT, PAIRING_VARIANT_PIN);
sendBroadcast(intent);
Respondent: moonlightcheese

The answers/resolutions are collected from stackoverflow, are licensed under cc by-sa 2.5 , cc by-sa 3.0 and cc by-sa 4.0 .

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