I am using DRF with the JWT package for authentication. Now, I’m trying to write a unit test that authenticates itself with a JWT token. No matter how I try it, I can’t get the test API client to authenticate itself via JWT. If I do the same with an API client (in my case, Postman), everything works.

This is the test case:

from django.urls import reverse
from rest_framework.test import APITestCase
from rest_framework_jwt.settings import api_settings

from backend.factories import member_factory

jwt_payload_handler = api_settings.JWT_PAYLOAD_HANDLER
jwt_encode_handler = api_settings.JWT_ENCODE_HANDLER


class MemberTests(APITestCase):
    def test_get_member(self):
        member = member_factory()

        payload = jwt_payload_handler(member.user)
        token = jwt_encode_handler(payload)

        self.client.credentials(Authorization='JWT {0}'.format(token))
        response = self.client.get(reverse('member-detail', kwargs={'pk': member.pk}))
        assert response.status_code == 200

But I always get a 401 Authentication credentials were not provided.

In response.request I see the token is there, it’s just not being applied I guess.

If I rewrite the test to use rest_framework.test.RequestsClient and actually send it to the live_server URL, it works.

Any help on this?

P.S.: I am aware of force_authenticate() and login, but I would like my unit tests to access the API the same as the API client will in production.

Try setting up a new APIClient for this test. This is how my own test looks like

 def test_api_jwt(self):

    url = reverse('api-jwt-auth')
    u = user_model.objects.create_user(username="user", email="[email protected]", password='pass')
    u.is_active = False
    u.save()

    resp = self.client.post(url, {'email':'[email protected]', 'password':'pass'}, format="json")
    self.assertEqual(resp.status_code, status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST)

    u.is_active = True
    u.save()

    resp = self.client.post(url, {'username':'[email protected]', 'password':'pass'}, format="json")
    self.assertEqual(resp.status_code, status.HTTP_200_OK)
    self.assertTrue('token' in resp.data)
    token = resp.data['token']
    #print(token)

    verification_url = reverse('api-jwt-verify')
    resp = self.client.post(verification_url, {'token': token}, format="json")
    self.assertEqual(resp.status_code, status.HTTP_200_OK)

    resp = self.client.post(verification_url, {'token': 'abc'}, format="json")
    self.assertEqual(resp.status_code, status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST)

    client = APIClient()
    client.credentials(HTTP_AUTHORIZATION='JWT ' + 'abc')
    resp = client.get('/api/v1/account/', data={'format': 'json'})
    self.assertEqual(resp.status_code, status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED)
    client.credentials(HTTP_AUTHORIZATION='JWT ' + token)
    resp = client.get('/api/v1/account/', data={'format': 'json'})
    self.assertEqual(resp.status_code, status.HTTP_200_OK)

The following answer applies if you are using Simple JWT and pytest, and Python 3.6+. You need to create a fixture, I have called it api_client, and you need to get the token for an existing user.

from django.contrib.auth.models import User
from rest_framework.test import APIClient
from rest_framework_simplejwt.tokens import RefreshToken

import pytest


@pytest.fixture
def api_client():
    user = User.objects.create_user(username="john", email="[email protected]", password='js.sj')
    client = APIClient()
    refresh = RefreshToken.for_user(user)
    client.credentials(HTTP_AUTHORIZATION=f'Bearer {refresh.access_token}')

    return client

Notice that in the fixture above, the user is created there, but you can use another fixture to create the user and pass it to this one. The key element is the following line:

refresh = RefreshToken.for_user(user)

This line allows you to create tokens manually as explained in the docs. Once you have that token, you can use the method credentials in order to set headers that will then be included on all subsequent requests by the test client. Notice that refresh.access_token contains the access token.

This fixture has to be used in your tests that you require the user to be authenticated as in the following example:

@pytest.mark.django_db
def test_name_of_your_test(api_client):
    # Add your logic here
    url = reverse('your-url')
    response = api_client.get(url)
    data = response.data

    assert response.status_code == HTTP_200_OK
    # your asserts

I had similar issue, enclosed I send you my solution just to have more code to compare (tests.py).

from django.urls import reverse
from rest_framework import status
from rest_framework.test import APITestCase
from django.contrib.auth.models import User


class AuthViewsTests(APITestCase):

    def setUp(self):
        self.username="usuario"
        self.password = 'contrasegna'
        self.data = {
            'username': self.username,
            'password': self.password
        }

    def test_current_user(self):

        # URL using path name
        url = reverse('tokenAuth')

        # Create a user is a workaround in order to authentication works
        user = User.objects.create_user(username="usuario", email="[email protected]", password='contrasegna')
        self.assertEqual(user.is_active, 1, 'Active User')

        # First post to get token
        response = self.client.post(url, self.data, format="json")
        self.assertEqual(response.status_code, status.HTTP_200_OK, response.content)
        token = response.data['token']

        # Next post/get's will require the token to connect
        self.client.credentials(HTTP_AUTHORIZATION='JWT {0}'.format(token))
        response = self.client.get(reverse('currentUser'), data={'format': 'json'})
        self.assertEqual(response.status_code, status.HTTP_200_OK, response.content)

Well, since i was using django unit test client, i just created a simple base test class with a bearer token property:

import json

from django.test import TestCase
from django.contrib.auth import User

from rest_framework.test import APIClient
from rest_framework_simplejwt.tokens import RefreshToken


class TestCaseBase(TestCase):
    @property
    def bearer_token(self):
        # assuming there is a user in User model
        user = User.objects.get(id=1)

        refresh = RefreshToken.for_user(user)
        return {"HTTP_AUTHORIZATION":f'Bearer {refresh.access_token}'}

In my django unit tests:

class SomeTestClass(TestCaseBase):
    url = "someurl"

    def test_get_something(self):
        self.client.get(self.url, **self.bearer_token)

    def test_post_something(self):
        self.client.post(self.url, data={"key":"value"}, **self.bearer_token)

Inspired by @dkarchmer, this is my code working.
I am using a custom user model which the email is used for authentication.
Pay attention to using email field for authentication requests.
If I use username, the response is 400_BAD_REQUEST.
The 401_UNAUTHORIZED usually means the credentials are not correct or the user is not activated.

def test_unusual(self):
        User = get_user_model()
        email="[email protected]"
        password = 'userpass1'
        username="user"
        user = User.objects.create_user(
            username=username, email=email, password=password)

        user.is_active = False
        user.save()

        obtain_url = reverse('token_obtain_pair')
        resp = self.client.post(
            obtain_url, {'email': email, 'password': password}, format="json")

        self.assertEqual(resp.status_code, status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED)

        user.is_active = True
        user.save()

        resp = self.client.post(
            obtain_url, {'email': email, 'password': password}, format="json")

        self.assertEqual(resp.status_code, status.HTTP_200_OK)

Postman interacts with your actual database. Django uses separate database for it’s test case running. Therefore a new user record needs to be created again inside your test definition before authentication testing. Hope this helps.

I’m using DRF and simple-jwt and I had to use Bearer instead of JWT in the http auth header: HTTP_AUTHORIZATION=f'Bearer {token}'

Full code:

def setUp(self):
    username = "[email protected]"
    password = "[email protected]!"
    self.user = User.objects.create_user(username, username, password)

    jwt_fetch_data = {
        'username':username,
        'password':password
    }

    url = reverse('token_obtain_pair')
    response = self.client.post(url, jwt_fetch_data, format="json")
    token = response.data['access']
    self.client.credentials(HTTP_AUTHORIZATION=f'Bearer {token}')

def test_post(self):
    response = self.client.get('/some-url/',
                               data={'format': 'json'}
                               )
    self.assertEqual(response.status_code, status.HTTP_200_OK)

from rest_framework.test import APITestCase
from django.contrib.auth import get_user_model
from django.urls import reverse
from rest_framework import status

from rest_framework_simplejwt.tokens import RefreshToken

User = get_user_model()


class TestCaseBase(APITestCase):
    @property
    def bearer_token(self):
        # assuming there is a user in User model
        user = User.objects.create_user(
            email="[email protected]", password='12345678'
        )

        refresh = RefreshToken.for_user(user)
        return {"HTTP_AUTHORIZATION": f'Bearer {refresh.access_token}'}


class CategoriesTestClass(TestCaseBase):
    url = reverse('categories-list')

    def test_get_list_no_auth(self):
        response = self.client.get(self.url)
        self.assertEqual(
            response.status_code, status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED, response.data
        )

    def test_get_list(self):
        response = self.client.get(self.url, **self.bearer_token)
        self.assertEqual(response.status_code, status.HTTP_200_OK)`enter code here`