Each Answer to this Q is separated by one/two green lines.
Inputting the command
0xbin() returns False:
>>> 0xbin() False
Why does that happen? This syntax should have no meaning whatsoever. Functions cannot start with 0, there are no “i” and “n” in hex, and the bin function must have some arguments.
Python seems to interpret
0xb in (), meaning is eleven in an empty tuple.
The answer is no, therefore
If you disassemble the code, you’ll see that Yself’s answer, which mentions that
0xbin() is interpreted as
0xb in (), is confirmed:
>>> import dis >>> dis.dis('0xbin()') 1 0 LOAD_CONST 0 (11) 2 BUILD_TUPLE 0 4 COMPARE_OP 6 (in) 6 RETURN_VALUE
You can use Python’s own tokenizer to check!
import tokenize import io line = b'0xbin()' print(' '.join(token.string for token in tokenize.tokenize(io.BytesIO(line).readline) if token.type!=59))
This prints the tokens in your string, separated by spaces. In this case, the result will be:
0xb in ( )
In other words, it returns False because the number 11 (
0xb) is not in the empty tuple (
(Thanks to Roman Odaisky for suggesting the use of
tokenize in the comments!)
EDIT: To explain the code a bit more thoroughly: the
tokenize function expects input in a bit of a weird format, so
io.BytesIO(line).readline is a function that turns a sequence of bytes into something
tokenize can read.
tokenize then tokenizes it and returns a series of
namedtuples; we take the string representing each one and join them together with spaces. The
type != 59 part is used to ignore the encoding specifier that would otherwise show up at the beginning.
>>> import ast >>> m = ast.parse('0xbin()') >>> ast.dump(m) 'Module( body=[Expr( value=Compare(left=Num(n=11), ops=[In()], comparators=[Tuple(elts=, ctx=Load()) ] ))])'
See the abstract grammar for how to interpret the expression, but tl;dr:
Num(n=11) is the
0xb part, and
Tuple(elts=, ...) hints towards an empty tuple rather than a function call.