@Sukrit Kalra

No.1: `list()`

, `[:]`

, `copy.copy()`

are all shallow copy. If an object is compound, they are all not suitable. You need to use `copy.deepcopy()`

.

No.2: `b = a`

directly, `a`

and `b`

have the same reference, changing `a`

is even as changing `b`

.

# set a to b

if assgin `a`

to `b`

directly, `a`

and `b`

share one reference.

```
>>> a = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = a
>>> a
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0] = 1
>>> a
[1, [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[1, [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = a
>>> a
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0][1] = 10
>>> a
[[1, 10, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 10, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
```

# shadow copy

## by `list()`

`list()`

and `[:]`

are the same. Except for the first layer changes, all other layers’ changes will be transferred.

```
>>> a = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = list(a)
>>> a
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0] = 1
>>> a
[1, [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = list(a)
>>> a
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0][1] = 10
>>> a
[[1, 10, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 10, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
```

## by `[:]`

```
>>> a = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = a[:]
>>> a
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0] = 1
>>> a
[1, [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = a[:]
>>> a
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0][1] = 10
>>> a
[[1, 10, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 10, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
```

## list() and [:] change the other layers, except for the 1st layer

```
# =========== [:] ===========
>>> a = [[1, 2, [3.5, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = a[:]
>>> a
[[1, 2, [3.5, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, [3.5, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0][2] = 4
>>> a
[[1, 2, 4], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 4], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a = [[1, 2, [3.5, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = a[:]
>>> a
[[1, 2, [3.5, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, [3.5, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0][2][0] = 999
>>> a
[[1, 2, [999, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, [999, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
# =========== list() ===========
>>> a = [[1, 2, [3.5, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = list(a)
>>> a
[[1, 2, [3.5, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, [3.5, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0][2] = 4
>>> a
[[1, 2, 4], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 4], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a = [[1, 2, [3.5, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = list(a)
>>> a
[[1, 2, [3.5, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, [3.5, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0][2][0] = 999
>>> a
[[1, 2, [999, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, [999, 6]], [4, 5, 6]]
```

## by `copy()`

You will find that `copy()`

function is the same as `list()`

and `[:]`

. They are all **shallow copy**.

For much more information about shallow copy and deep copy, maybe you can reference here.

```
>>> a = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = copy.copy(a)
>>> a
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0][1] = 10
>>> a
[[1, 10, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 10, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
```

# by `deepcopy()`

```
>>> import copy
>>> a = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = copy.deepcopy(a)
>>> a
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0] = 1
>>> a
[1, [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b = copy.deepcopy(a)
>>> a
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> a[0][1] = 10
>>> a
[[1, 10, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
>>> b
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
```